Data are collected at the indicator level, with each indicator describing an element of an activity. Take the example of Activity 2.1 of Step 1 “There is a reporting mechanism for reporting crimes related to modern slavery”: Our work with survivors of modern slavery influences everything we do. Based on this theoretical framework, and building on the 20002 UN Trafficking in Persons Protocol, the 2014 Forced Labour Protocol (P029)3 and the 20054 European Convention for the Suppression of Trafficking in Human Beings, as well as the literature on effective responses to modern slavery5, We have developed a conceptual framework for what constitutes a strong response to modern slavery. It revolves around the five milestones mentioned above, which, if achieved, would enable governments to take action to combat modern slavery. The conceptual framework was developed in consultation with a working group of independent experts and is based on research findings by NGOs and academics in areas related to modern slavery, such as harmful traditional practices, health, social welfare and migration.6 The full conceptual framework is presented in Table 8. The data was then exported to an Excel spreadsheet and the final score was applied. Each activity is weighted equally, so that a country can receive a total of 28 points. This results in an implicit weighting of milestones, where the more activity there is in a milestone, the more weight is given to the milestone. Table 5 describes the implicit weights of milestones. Two negative indicators (widespread and unstudied official complicity in cases of modern slavery and state-imposed forced labour) were then subtracted from the total. The final score was presented as a percentage, which was then converted into a score, based on equal steps of 10 (Table 6). Finally, any government with negative indicators was limited to a BBB rating.

Governments play a critical role in developing and implementing the laws, policies and programs needed to prevent and combat modern slavery. To complement prevalence estimates and vulnerability assessments, the Global Slavery Index includes, for the third consecutive year, an assessment of the measures taken by governments to combat modern slavery. The Rights Lab at the University of Nottingham collaborated to assess the government`s response in 2018 and map additional data. A team of 13 Nottingham researchers from various disciplines, led by Katharine Bryant (Walk Free), worked to assess government responses from 89 countries. The Rights Lab is led by Zoe Trodd, Kevin Bales and Todd Landman. All data collected for our assessment of government responses since 2014 is available online. Nearly 100,000 data points in total. The reviews are available for 2016 and 2018. See www.globalslaveryindex.org/data/. The 14 negative indicators can be divided into two categories; Acts that harm identified victims of modern slavery and policies or laws that permit or facilitate modern slavery.

These data points were then verified, to the extent possible, by NGO contacts in each country. NGOs were given the opportunity to respond by email, conduct Skype interviews or complete a survey. More than 60 responses to the survey were received and another 51 NGOs responded to individual requests for information by e-mail or Skype. This chapter deals with problems of judicial interpretation and the application of the meaning of slavery. He revised the 1926 definition of slavery and observed the persistent presence of de facto slavery, which hindered the victim in many ways. It analyzes Kunrac`s slavery jurisprudence, which uses the application and interpretation of the definition of slavery. He also handles Australian cases, which pay the greatest judicial attention to the powers associated with property rights. This chapter concludes that international instruments contain clear definitions of forced labour and slavery, although courts have struggled to use slavery as a separate legal category. In line with Sustainable Development Goal 8.7, IPEC+ focuses on eliminating child labour in all its forms by 2025 and eliminating forced labour, modern slavery and human trafficking by 2030.

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